[2018] Johns Hopkins: Self-Spreading Vaccines

Read also: Pfizer’s own doc: Stay away from the vaxed


Excerpts from: [2018] Johns Hopkins: Technologies to address global catastrophic biological risks

Exec summary contains the topic of interest — do you recognise techs that Gates bragged about: vax patches, mRNA vax, drone delivery (current release of GMO mosquitoes in Florida to the residents’ dismay; “People […] do not consent to the genetically engineered mosquitoes or to being human experiments.”). Drones may include insect drones equipped with “vax”.

Medicall Countermeasure Distribution, Dispensing, and Administration

Microarray Patches for Vaccine Administration: The microarray patch (MAP) is an emerging vaccine administration technology that has the potential to modernize the conduct of mass vaccination campaigns. The widespread adoption of MAP technology would significantly decrease a population’s time to complete immunization operations by enabling self- administration during emergencies.

Self-Spreading Vaccines: Self- spreading vaccines are genetically engineered to move through populations like communicable diseases, but rather than causing disease, they confer protection. The vision is that a small number of individuals in a target population could be vaccinated, and the vaccine strain would then circulate in the population much like a pathogenic virus, resulting in rapid, widespread immunity.

Ingestible Bacteria for Vaccination: Bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce antigens in a human host, acting as a vaccine, which triggers immunity to pathogens of concern. These bacteria can be placed inside capsules that are temperature stable, and they can be self-administered in the event of a pandemic.

Self-Amplifying mRNA Vaccines: SAM vaccines use the genome of a modified virus with positive sense RNA, which is recognizable to our human translational machinery. Once delivered inside a human cell, the SAM is translated and creates 2 proteins: an antigen of interest to stimulate an immune response, and a viral replicase for intracellular amplification of the vaccine. The ability of SAM to self-replicate results in a stronger, broader, and more effective humoral and cellular immune response than some other vaccines.

Drone Delivery to Remote Locations: Drone transportation networks can enable the rapid delivery of clinical materiel and pharmaceutical supplies to areas that are difficult to access, either due to physical or topographical barriers or the risk of infection for human responders.

Some excerpts from the report’s chapter on self-spreading vax:

Self-spreading vaccines—also known as transmissible or self-propagating vaccines—are genetically engineered to move
through populations in the same way as communicable diseases,
but rather than causing disease, they confer protection. The vision is
that a small number of individuals in the target population could be
vaccinated, and the vaccine strain would then circulate in the population much like a pathogenic virus. These vaccines could dramatically increase vaccine coverage in human or animal populations without requiring each individual to be inoculated.

[…] There are 2 main types of self-spreading vaccines: recombinant vector vaccines and live viral vaccines. Recombinant vector vaccines combine the elements of a pathogenic virus that induce immunity (removing the portion that causes disease) with a transmissible viral vector. Cyto- megalovirus is one candidate vector for recombinant vaccines, because it is highly species-specific and moderately transmissible. Live viral vaccines are attenuated, meaning that the vaccine viruses are much less pathogenic than wild-type and would be similar to the oral polio vaccine or the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in that those vaccines can sometimes transmit from person to person.

[…] In the event of a grave public health threat, self-spreading vaccines could potentially be used to broadly inoculate human populations. Like the approach in animals, only a small number of vaccinated individuals would be required in order to confer protection to a larger susceptible population, thus eliminating the need for mass vaccination operations, including PODs. Current mass vaccination strategies require each individual to be inoculated with 1 or more doses of vaccine. For humans, this can be accomplished at PODs or doctors’ offices, by healthcare providers, but for wild animal populations there is the added challenge of animals being difficult to track and catch.

One relatively successful approach to vaccinating wild animal populations is through use of oral baits. For example, oral rabies vaccine baits have been dropped aerially into animal habitats to reach vulnerable species like foxes and bats. This approach relies on development of a suitable and stable vaccine and timely bait uptake, and it may not reach all vulnerable animals. Nevertheless, it has contributed significantly to rabies elimination in a number of geographic areas,41 and it is also being used for other diseases like Lyme disease.42

In human pandemics, each element in the pipeline of vaccine production, distribution, and administration would have signifi- cant difficulties in scaling effectively to address the crisis. For example, if vaccine cannot be produced at scale, or if the healthcare system cannot flex to accommodate the administration of millions of doses of vaccine, the effectiveness of the response will be diminished.

[…] For human use, targeted release of weakly transmissible self-spreading vaccine early in an outbreak could create herd immunity in communities and prevent an outbreak from becoming a pandemic. If introduced later, after an outbreak has become widespread, self-spreading vaccines could still help to protect susceptible individuals and limit the number of new cases and prevent catastrophic outcomes.

While self-spreading vaccines could help reduce illness and death in a severe pandemic, this approach comes with several big challenges. One important component of the current vaccination approach for humans is the informed consent process. In order to receive a vaccine, individuals (or their legal guardians) must be informed about the risks of vaccination by a healthcare provider and provide their consent before being vaccinated. Those who decline are not forced to receive a vaccine. In the case of self-spreading vaccines, the individuals directly vaccinated would have this option, but those to whom the vaccine subsequently spreads would not. Additionally, self-spreading vaccines would potentially infect individuals with contraindications, such as allergies, that could be life-threatening. The ethical and regulatory challenges surrounding informed consent and prevention and monitoring of adverse events would be critical challenges to implementing this approach even in an extreme event.

Finally, there is a not insignificant risk of the vaccine virus reverting to wild-type virulence, as has sometimes occurred with the oral polio vaccine—which is not intended to be fully virulent or transmissible, but which has reverted to become both neurovirulent and transmissible in rare instances. This is both a medical risk and a public perception risk; the possibility of vaccine-induced disease would be a major concern to the public. Modeling efforts suggest that making self-spreading vaccines weakly transmissible might reduce the risk of reversion to wild-type virulence by limiting the number of opportunities for the virus to evolve. However, weakly transmissible vaccines would have to be introduced to more people to obtain sufficient immunity in the target population.

Key Readings

Bull JJ, Smithson MW, Nuismer SL. Transmissible viral vaccines. Trends Microbiol 2018;26(1):6-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2017. 09.007. Accessed June 25, 2018.

Murphy AA, Redwood AJ, Jarvis MA. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases. Expert Rev Vaccines 2016;15(1):31-39. https://doi.org/10.158 6/14760584.2016.1106942. Accessed June 25, 2018.

Nuismer SL, Althouse BM, May R, Bull JJ, Stromberg SP, Antia R. Eradicating infectious disease using weakly transmissible vaccines. Proc Biol Sci 2016;283(1841). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.1903. Accessed June 25, 2018.

Torres JM, Sánchez C, Ramírez MA, et al. First field trial of a transmissible recombinant vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Vaccine 2001;19(31):4536-4543. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00184-0. Accessed June 25, 2018.

Tsuda Y, Caposio P, Parkins CJ, et al. A replicating cytomegalovirus-based vaccine encoding a single Ebola virus nucleoprotein CTL epitope confers protection against Ebola virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011;5(8):e1275. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001275. Accessed June 25, 2018.

By piotrbein